| Major Executive of the Executive Branch
|Seal of the Major Executive|
|Ninth Major Executive Lancelot Rice|
|Entered Office||January 23rd, 2016|
|Other Positions||Senior Executive|
|Chief of Staff||None|
|Deputy Major Executive||The Minor Executive|
|General Position Overview|
|Purpose||To manage the duties not fulfilled due to empty positions, manage the sites under the jurisdiction of the Triumvirate, editing and adjusting the laws of the Triumvirate when the Executive Branch desires them to, acting as the commander-in-chief.|
|Formed||November 15th, 2010|
|First Major Executive||Zerouh|
The Major Executive is considered the most prominent position in the Triumvirate. They are not only the commander-in-chief of the Triumvirate, but they are also responsible for management of all Triumvirate sites, social media, jobs the rest of the Executive Branch doesn't do, and other responsibilities that have expanded in laws approved by the Executive Branch. It is prescribed for by article three of the Constitution.
The election process for the Major Executive is described in article three, section 1. One month before the opening of every trimester (December 1, April 1, and August 1) the current Major Executive (at the time) must start a discussion where everyone who plans to run for Major and Minor Executive must announce it. That is when official campaigning begins (as all candidates are known at the time), but often there are campaigns prior to that. Then two weeks before the end of the trimester, every Executive lists off the candidates in order of which they most want to be Major Executive so as for a run-off election to occur. A majority of votes is necessary to be elected Major Executive and should no candidate achieve a majority outright, the candidate with the fewest votes is removed and so on. The Senators are obligated to vote for whomever the public voted for in the popular vote and, should that candidate be eliminated, the Senators vote for the individual who received the second most votes in the popular vote, and so on. Whoever wins the election enters office on the first day of the coming trimester (January 1, May 1, and September 1).
If there is a tie between the final two candidates standing, the Administrative Branch has the role of determining who shall be Major Executive from the candidates who were tied. If no Executive runs for Major Executive, it goes to the most senior Executive by default.
There are a number of restrictions as to who can become Major Executive. No person with a significant criminal record may become Major Executive (even if they have been pardoned, as they still maintain the record) and no person with loyalties not first to the Triumvirate may either. An Executive who has not been in the branch more than two months may not become Major Executive unless there are two or fewer Executives of a higher duration. A person can only be Major Executive for three trimesters.
The Major Executive is removed from office in a slightly different way than other Executive offices as it requires a two-thirds vote of the Executive Branch (excluding the Major Executive) and a majority of the Administrative Branch to remove them. This is due to their role as commander-in-chief, to them having terms and term limits, and because they are a distinct position in the Executive Branch.
Oath and Inauguration
The Constitution requires that before the Major Executive "enter the execution of their office", they must take the Oath of Office, which must be given by a citizen of the Triumvirate and must be witnessed by at least three others. The oath goes "I do solemnly swear that I will faithfully execute the office of Major Executive of the Universal Triumvirate, and will to the best of my ability preserve, protect, and defend the ideals and the Constitution of the Universal Triumvirate", often the Major Executive will add their name in after the I.
The Major Executive traditionally chooses who will swear them in. Common choices might be the Chief Justice, someone they ran against for Major, a close friend, or anyone whose role as swearing in would be symbolic in the inauguration of the Major Executive.
When the incoming Major Executive becomes Major Executive, they resign from their previous Executive office (for example, if the Administrative Liaison ran for Major Executive and was elected, they'd resign from Administrative Liaison, leaving that office vacated, when they became Major Executive). This began in 2013, Trimester II, with an amendment that split the Major Executive position as its own distinct position instead of being an additional position that could be held along with a standard office.
First and foremost, the Major Executive is tasked (along with the Department of the Archive) with the implementation and editing of Triumvirate legislation when it has been adjusted. For example, if an amendment to the Constitution is passed, it is the Major Executive solely who may edit the Constitution. This also applies to laws, treaties, and other legally binding government documents. The term "strategic implementation" came from Major Executive Maine, who coined it in describing that the Major Executive has some leeway in this duty in terms of when and in what method to adjust, add, or amend the legislation. This is controversial.
The Major Executive, as established by the Supreme Court differed question case Court Ruling of Major Executive Powers of October 2011, has been recognized as having a number of implied powers involving management of Triumvirate sites. They are allowed to decide if sites may or may not be created and have the primary say on what goes on Triumvirate sites so long as it doesn't conflict with the Executive Branch or laws within the Triumvirate.
The Major Executive is always at least a D-4 rank (Diplomat) in the Department of State. They also will, regardless of rank, have access to all Intelligence information in the Triumvirate.
Though the Major Executive cannot sit on any committee, a significant power of the position is to appoint Executives to empty positions on committees if there is a vacancy in the middle of the trimester. They also get to make three appointments of their choice of Executives to committees.
The Major Executive is able to create Major Task Forces, to advise them on issues and serve as "personal committees" of sorts to them. The Major Executive can set the rules, leadership, goals, duration of existence, or almost anything they want for these task forces and they are a primary tool in finding solutions for the Major Executive that the Major either does not have the time to do themselves, or needs a wider view on.
Possibly one of the most important responsibilities of the Major Executive is the power they have to manage all unfilled positions in the Executive Branch. This includes leading Departments without a head and doing the work of the positions without a person in the Executive Branch. They do not get an additional vote from this, they must solely manage it. The Constitution also states that should there be no Administrative Liaison, the Major Executive must fulfill their duties as a liaison between the Executive and Administrative branches. The Major Executive is permitted to delegate these responsibilities to any other Executive who is willing to take them up.
The Major Executive is also, per the Constitution, the Commander-in-Chief of the Universal Triumvirate defense, and frequently the Major Executive will issue security and defense-related Major Orders. As commander-in-chief, they also reserve the power to change the Defense Execution (DEFEX) levels for defense readiness.
The office of the Major Executive, called the "Majorate" (similar to how the office of the President of the United States is called the "presidency" or "The White House" - this term was first used by Major Executive Maine), consists of the staff and assets available to the Major Executive. The Majorate is primarily managed by the Chief of Staff, whom the Major Executive selects as their top adviser and manager of the office outside of the Executive Branch. The Chief of Staff will often assist the Major Executive in managing their office.
The Major Executive also utilizes the Joint Command Council as their primary source of security, military, and intelligence decisions and input. They and their Chief of Staff, as well as occasionally the Minor Executive participate in the Joint Command Council to stay briefed.
The Futures Code set up future provisions for the office of the Major Executive including other staff like a communications director, deputy chief of staff, legislative director, and chief economic adviser.
The controversy behind the position is the amount of power associated with it. The Triumvirate's founder, Zerouh, always held to the doctrine that all Executive's should be equal in one way or another. An equal distribution of power and discipline must go to all Executives. The Major Executive has, over time, become recognized as "above" other Executives even though it doesn't have any power over them and is controlled by them. The issue is that the Major Executive has acquired many implied powers and the Executive Branch has approved many pieces of legislation giving the Major Executive other abilities besides the ones given to them in the Constitution.
Zerouh once detailed where the Major Executive must fall in saying this to the three Justices in office before he left (Justices Stavrok, Esteemi, and Hik10er) as well as the Major Executive to be Arnold Ogamon:
"Inevitably you Justices will be dealing with the powers of the Major Executive, there are far too many implied powers and responsibilities in the Constitution for it to not come up. When it happens, I only ask you use wisdom in deciding. Keep the Major Executive strongly able to act with maximum efficiency, but never so that they are separate from the Executive Branch. They must exist on an extraordinarily fine line between an Executive and a President. Never becoming one or the other. Keep them on that line, and, if you must, maintain them closer to an Executive rather than a calculating and isolated President of the Triumvirate."
During the Revival Era (2013 - Mid-2014), Major Executives Neil and Maine embodied an extremely powerful Majorate, expanding the power of their office tremendously. However, in the subsequent Practical Era (Mid-2014 - ), the weakness and plight of Major Executive Bleitze combined with subsequent scandals and then Major Executive Stenbach's beliefs in a weaker Majorate propagated a weaker Majorate going forward.
The Major Executive, being considered the most prominent position in the entire Triumvirate, has, since even Major Executive Zerouh always held a degree of respect and tradition in terms of what they do in office. Among such many of these customs were created and established by Zerouh who, like George Washington as the first President of the United States, set many precedents for the office of Major Executive.
It is customary for the standing Major Executive to write a letter to the next Major Executive when they step down, this letter often details their desires, advice, recommendations, and good will to their successor. Zerouh started this tradition by giving a letter to the next Major Executive Arnold Ogamon right before Zerouh left office and Arnold Ogamon assumed the position.
When formally listing individuals, the Major Executive is almost always the first listed pursuant to the Procedural Rules of the Executive Branch. The Major Executive also reserves the chair at the head of the Executive Table and seats to their right the Minor Executive and to their left their closest adviser from their own party.
Major Executive Arnold Ogamon set the precedent when he stepped down after losing his reelection to Stavrok that once you have been Major, you should not attempt to become Major again except in the most extraordinary of circumstances. Though Arnold was able to challenge Stavrok for the position again, he did not because of his desire to set this precedent. The precedent, though it was considered a little obscure at first, actually fits well as it makes the stability of the Executive Branch stronger and it makes documentation easier (e.g. Arnold Ogamon can be called the "Second Major Executive", Stavrok the "Third Major Executive", if Ogamon were to run again and win he'd have to be called the "Second and Fourth Major Executive" which could make things more complicated). This precedent was reinforced by an amendment to the Constitution which went into effect the second trimester of 2013 that split the Major Executive position, making it distinct and separate, so that when someone left office as Major Executive, they would leave the Executive Branch (unless elected into another position).
Zerouh set the precedent, somewhat unknowingly, that when a Major Executive is leaving office and deciding not to run again, that they shall not vote for whom the new Major and Minor are as a sign of respect for the future Triumvirate, and not letting their old way influence what the new Triumvirate desires.
History of Major Executives
First Major Executive Zerouh (November 15, 2010 - June 26, 2011)
- Main article: Zerouh
The first Major Executive, who was also the founder of the Triumvirate, Zerouh, took office after the creation of the position in mid-November of 2010. In his time in office he oversaw the formation of many key amendments to the Constitution, TDL Certification, and the early stages of the Triumvirate. Though Zerouh did try to keep the position weak and did not intend for it to reach a level of power as it is today, the amount of respect that was held for Zerouh only further elevated the position. He also provided many precedents for future Executives and Major Executives. He was in office from November 15th, 2010 until June 26th, 2011 when he retired and Arnold Ogamon became the second Major Executive.
Second Major Executive Arnold Ogamon (June 26, 2011 - May 31, 2012)
- Main article: Arnold Ogamon
The first Major Executive after Zerouh left office, Chief Attorney Arnold Ogamon assumed the position on June 26, 2011, and quickly began his initiatives. Some of the key items on his agenda included the further defining of the court system, creation of the Independence Act, revision of the Administrative Branch, perfection of the courts through bills such as the Rules of Criminal Procedure, revision of the financial system, and passage of the GUARD Act. He is most known for the Résumé Policy, which, in its time, set up the entire résumé system, aided in better defining citizenship, and completely revolutionized the core concept of what it meant to be a member of the Triumvirate. He did much of the work for these efforts independently but often had to work with other Executives in order to get his policies and ideas passed. Largely considered the "greatest Major Executive" as well as the "true constructor of the Triumvirate", his year in office only marked a small portion of his entire career, which spanned for years. During his term, the Countdown Crisis occurred which caused him to temporarily resign from the office and give Minor Executive Ehtya the role of acting Major Executive. Ogamon lost reelection to Stavrok in May 2012 after serving nearly a year.
Third Major Executive Stavrok (May 31, 2012 - December 31, 2012)
- Main article: Stavrok
After defeating incumbent Arnold Ogamon in the first election after the revised election system in May 2012, Stavrok set to work as a progressive and liberal force in the Triumvirate. After a year of staunch conservative idealism in the Executive Branch and the Triumvirate Stavrok took the office in a progressive movement and managed to pass his critical goal, the PEACE Act quickly. He was unchallenged in the election in August 2012 which lead into his second trimester as Major Executive where he altered his central goal from internationalism to the rounding and filling of the Executive Branch which only had half of its potential members at the time. During this second term, an amendment to the Constitution was approved designating the Major Executive as the Commander-in-Chief of the Universal Triumvirate, something he was opposed to as Stavrok was against Major Executive power. In his second term he also managed to oversee a sweeping reform which was the approval of business taxes in the Triumvirate, a massive overhaul from the previous "no-tax policy" held up to that point. Stavrok did seek a third term, running with Minor Executive candidate Head of the Treasury Andrew Hester, but was narrowly defeated by Elliot Neil in a game-changing election.
Fourth Major Executive Elliot Neil (January 1, 2013 - April 30, 2013)
- Main article: Elliot Neil
The youngest ever elected Major Executive and the first female Major Executive, Elliot Neil, a member of the Establishment Party, entered office on January 1, 2013, at the beginning of the new year. Neil immediately began revolutionizing the office of the Major Executive, equipping it with a Chief of Staff and additional powers in her Major Executive Entitlements Policy. She named Theodore Crown, a former Justice, as her Chief of Staff. She presided over the addition of committees, political caucuses, and the passage of the revised Administrative Branch election system. She also lead the charge with Nathan Maine for naturalization overhaul, drafting the Naturalization Act and establishing the Department of Naturalization. She established the Joint Command Council and nominated Ehtya as the first Chairman of the JCC. Under Major Executive Neil, an amendment was passed that made the Major Executive a distinct and separate position effective the next trimester (2013, Trimester II), making Ms. Neil the last Major Executive to be both an Executive position (Administrative Liaison in her case) and Major Executive at the same time. Elliot Neil did not run for a second term and Nathan Maine, running unopposed for the position, was elected to become the Major Executive after her.
Fifth Major Executive Nathan Maine (May 1, 2013 - April 30, 2014)
- Main article: Nathan Maine
Nathan Maine entered office on May first, 2013. Though his first month in saw little action, he utilized State of the Union X to get his agenda moving. A Progressive, Maine largely sought to influence economics and business in his first term, and some of his key legislation included the Monetary Code which created a system of monetary policy within the Union, the Banking Code, the Equity and Securities Code, and, most notably, a massive stimulus: the 2013-II Economic Stimulus and Infrastructure Investment Act. His frequently-used line "reasonable regulation" and his focus to regulate banking and the public companies earned him the nickname "Reasonable Regulation Maine", while his passionate attitude and sometimes combative demeanor earned him the nickname "The Aggressive Progressive". He also oversaw, for the first time in Triumvirate history, the public release of archived deliberations and votes by the Executive Branch so as to promote understanding and transparency in government. Maine struggled extensively with Speaker of the Administration Andrew Mearl in his first term and drew criticism for this, inciting Mitchell Carrick to run against him when he sought a second term. Maine won reelection 6-2 against Carrick and went on to serve as Major Executive through 2013-III.
At the beginning of the last trimester of 2013, the Administrative Branch elected, for the first time ever, two members of the same party to Speaker and Deputy Speaker, both from the Establishment Party that was vehemently opposed to Maine and his agenda. This was not the only challenge facing him at the onset of the trimester though as Minor Executive Andrew Hester, who had too been reelected, abruptly resigned, forcing a special election as to who would be the Minor Executive for the duration of the trimester. Lanclot Rice was elected as Minor and set with Maine to face unprecedented political challenges in 2013-III. Maine began his second term with the passage of the WEB Act and the Expropriation of the Clan Wiki which dominated much of September but had to deal with a backlash by the conservatives against his stimulus passed prior, finally resulting in the Halloween Shutdown, the very first government shutdown in Triumvirate history. It lasted two weeks but was key in shaping Maine's strategy for the duration of the trimester and building his appearance. Maine proposed the Futures Code, which was monumental in shaping the Union for the months and years to come due to its intent directed at promoting long-term planning for the Triumvirate. Maine, empowered by incredible popularity and successful programs, was handily reelected to a third and final term and went on to serve as Major Executive through 2014-I.
In the beginning of Maine's last term in office, the Desolaran Civil War erupted and he sought a Declaration of War against Desolare so as to aide Pania, which was attempting to gain independence from Desolare. Though the war continued well into his final term, he continued with his legislative agenda, increasing recruitment incentives once more, proposing the Departures and Renouncement Code, and creating the first Major Task Force (the Major Task Force on Recruitment). In February, he proposed the Legal Codification Act, which began the process to codify all public laws into the Universal Triumvirate Code (he created the Major Task Force on Codification, which was composed of both Chief Justice Esteemi Evantsu and former Speaker of the Administration and political rival Andrew Mearl, to aide in the process). In March, he proposed a definition and series of procedures to identify and mark recognized sovereign states, which was monumental in that it impacted how the Triumvirate views itself, others, and conducts diplomatic activities. Finally, In April, Maine concluded the codification of all public Triumvirate laws into the Universal Triumvirate Code, accepted Desolare's surrender in the Desolaran Civil War, and personally lead negotiations for the Triumvirate in framing the Treaty of Ten, wrapping up all of his major third term agenda items swiftly before stepping down.
Sixth Major Executive Ryan Bleitze (May 1, 2014 - July 16, 2014)
- Main article: Ryan Bleitze
Ryan Bleitze experienced a rough start to his term due to a convoluted election process in which he only received 4/10 of the votes in the Executive Branch and then was tied in the Administrative Branch. He selected Ronald Afferson as his Chief of Staff and attempted to propose many amendments and policies to liberalize the government, all of which failed. On May 22, 2014, a joint resolution was passed by the government which condemned his actions thus far as Major Executive especially with regards to targeting businesses and security. He also received a censure alongside this. An advocate for liberal government and heavy government influence in the economy, Bleitze pushed forward and did achieve the passage of a minimum wage in the Triumvirate via the Wage and Labor Standards Act and the allowance of Executive pay. On June 25, 2014, Bleitze was forcibly temporarily removed from office as Major Executive when he refused to renominate Jackson Mearl as Chairman of the JCC and blocked foreign leaders from having access to the Triumvirate central forum. Minor Executive Edward Stenbach took authority temporarily as a result until June 29. In mid July, the Bleitze Majorate became the subject of the massive Blacklist Scandal, in which an illegal blacklist of various Triumvirate officials was leaked to the public. Bleitze's Chief of Staff, Ronald Afferson, resigned as a result and was arrested on treason charges on July 12. After Bleitze's own affiliation with the document was discovered, his impeachment was proposed and was overwhelmingly successful in the Executive Branch, but Bleitze resigned on July 16 before the Administration could confirm the impeachment leading Minor Executive Edward Stenbach to become the seventh Major Executive.
Seventh Major Executive Edward Stenbach (July 16, 2014 - April 30, 2015)
- Main article: Edward Stenbach
Edward Stenbach took office abruptly after Major Executive Bleitze resigned. He made his claim as a neo-conservative academic in the Triumvirate, advocating for traditional government and a weak Majorate, embodying elitist principles of government and proposing methods to reduce government spending. He ran for election to a full term as Major Executive in August, facing Lanclot Rice and Jackson Mearl, and won, making him Major Executive for 2014-III. On the onset of 2014-III he proposed his CORE Act, which combined a multitude of conservative ideals into a significant bill, slashing government spending and setting entry requirements for Executive offices; it was met with staunch resistance by Speaker of the Administration Luke Cannon (of the opposing Progressive Party) but eventually came to pass. In 2014-III, he framed legislation like the Historical Certification Act and the Judicial and Legal Modernization Act but, due to the excessive slump in activity, membership, and economic growth that occurred in that trimester, triggering a recession, met criticism.
He was narrowly reelected to remain Major Executive for 2015-I and his first big initiative for 2015-I was framing the 2015 Compact, the collection of moderate legislative advancements, an Executive initiative, and appointments that he and Speaker of the Administration Luke Cannon composed to put the Triumvirate on solid footing for 2015 and alleviate some of the effects of the recession. His CLEAN Act, Naturalization Contingency Act, curtailing of government spending, and Union Academy Act were all significant legislative policies he pursued and was able to pass in 2015-I, with the Union Academy Act being his primary goal so as to give the Triumvirate an educational backing by means of the Union Academy. He made it a top priority to fill the Supreme Court with qualified legal scholars as well because he believed the court would become increasingly relevant in the year to come. He did not run for reelection though we was able to and instead chose to be elected Head of Education and Dean of the Academy so as to work on his academy.
Eighth Major Executive Charles Sessions (May 1, 2015 - January 23, 2016)
- Main article: Charles Sessions
Charles Sessions took office on May 1st, 2015 after running unopposed for Major Executive. During his first Trimester in office, he worked to offer reforms to many of the current standing Triumvirate programs, and he successfully passed such legislation which included the Party On! Act, and the SIFIMI Act. His arguably most important impact came with the LEAD Act, giving the various departments in the Executive Branch the ability to issue bonds themselves instead of just the Department of Treasury and Department of Naturalization. Fairly popular during his first term, Charles Sessions won re-election unopposed for the 2015-III Trimester.
With a new agenda in mind, Sessions began to focus on his new plan, the Universal Citizenship Charge. After passing a constitutional amendment to allow for the passage of such a bill, he focused his time and effort into compromising with the various parties to allow for his plan to take action. After running unopposed yet again, Sessions was elected to a third and final term as Major Executive on December 4, 2015.
As the 2016-I Trimester began, Sessions (as well as other notable Executives, Administrators, Justices and private citizens) went inactive, and before many of them were due to be impeached on January 22nd, the Triumvirate forum went offline. Due to the emergency at hand coupled with the inactivity of most senior Executives, Lancelot Rice took office on January 23rd, 2016, bringing the Sessions Majorate and a 2 year period of prosperity in the Triumvirate to a mysterious end. It was later discovered in the Exodus Brief sent to Lancelot Rice that Charles Sessions was behind the Winter Attacks, using a money laundering system and various other illegal activities, and decided to try and destroy the Triumvirate so he would not get caught.
Ninth Major Executive Lancelot Rice (January 23, 2016 - Current)
Major Executive Rice took office on January 23, 2016, shortly after the Winter Attacks on the Triumvirate website. After seemingly stabilizing the situation, he released State of the Union XVII and outlined his three-pronged approach for his domestic policy known as the "Superior Deal". Acting fast within his first 30 days in office, he passed the Reasonable Defense Act and the Open Administration Act, redefining defense procedure and finally allowing normal citizens to see the inner workings of the Administrative Branch. Even though there was monumental effort from all involved with the Triumvirate, eventually the union lapsed into a period of inactivity from which it would not recover for almost a year. Rice, technically well over a year into office, remained as Major Executive when the rebuilding of the Universal Triumvirate began in earnest in the Spring of 2017. After an agreement met unanimously by the members of the Triumvirate, it was decided that Rice would be allowed to take office on July 1st, 2017, and still be eligible for his own three terms as Major Executive due to the catastrophe derailing his Majorate. This decision would make Rice statistically the longest serving Major Executive in Triumvirate history, with him having technically held the office for a year and six months by the time of July 2017, with 14 more potential months to come.
In the period preparatory to opening the Universal Triumvirate in July of 2017, Rice focused his efforts on returning the culture of the Triumvirate to its perceived height in 2014-15. Most of the work done would be to repair the wikia, which had fallen into dilapidation. After negotiations with Vulpes Arenas and the Establishment Party, it was decided that constitutional reform was necessary to make the document apolitical, with the first of these measures being focused on lifting the cap on taxable income for corporations and striking the clause preventing personal income tax. After this agreement, Rice decided to revive the Superior Deal he had promised the members of the Triumvirate in the year before by preparing several tax reform packages, as well as championing the idea that the Major Executive should be a publicly elected official. On May 9th, 2017, Rice issued three more Major Orders, this time to create an emergency fund of 500 Tri with an agency to manage the funds, as well as preventing the Triumvirate from acting to influence a foreign election in the future. This marked the first time a Major Executive had used the power of the Major Order to create an agency.